Issues of Rational Energy Supply to Specially Protected Natural Areas and How to Resolve Them with the Example of the Khuvsgul National Park
Keywords:Local energy resources, solar radiation, the number of “degree-days” of heating, solar heating, thermal energy storage, solar photovoltaic, local system, backup source, solar power plant, power quality, power supply reliability, multi-criteria optimization
The paper addresses the issues of applying solar plants and solar heating systems for energy supply to the facilities located in specially protected natural areas (SPNA). The findings of the research into the existing energy systems and possible strands of their development, given the installation of reactive power compensators and the adoption of photovoltaic cells (PVCs), are presented. A comparative analysis of the modernized system functioning with the existing power grid is carried out. To this end, a special algorithm for multi-criteria optimization of the locations and generating capacity for solar plants is used, which involves sequentially checking the feasibility of additional capacity to be installed at consumers’ of each considered substation. The possibility of using solar heat supply to a specific facility is investigated and economic indicators are calculated for it. A heating system layout has been developed and proposed for the school building, which makes it possible to provide it with thermal energy throughout the year.
As a case study, the paper considers the problem of electricity and heat supply to consumers in the cross-border recreational area “Baikal-Khuvsgul.” At present, power supply to this region is provided from the Central electric power system (CEPS) of Mongolia from the Muren substation along the 35 kV power transmission line (TL) to the substation in the center of the Alag-Erdene sum, and from it, through the 35kV, 15kV and 10 kV distribution networks, further to consumers. At the same time, due to the weak energy infrastructure, significant remoteness and inaccessibility of the area, as well as low population density, the development of this system does not seem effective in most of the territory and does not ensure the conditions for the creation of a reliable fuel and energy supply. According to modern requirements, including the growing loads and the development of ecotourism in the region, it is time to reconsider the concept and approaches to the energy supply and determine the most appropriate ways to implement them. First of all, it is necessary to assess the possibility of using local renewable and other energy resources. The findings of the study on the local energy resources, given the characteristics and environmental vulnerability of protected areas, as well as the seasonal nature of changes in the electrical and thermal loads of most consumers, suggest that the most feasible way is to introduce solar energy.
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