Energy Systems Research <p><em>Energy Systems Research</em> is an international peer-reviewed journal addressing all the aspects of energy systems, including their sustainable development and effective use, smart and reliable operation, control and management, integration and interaction in a complex physical, technical, economic and social environment.</p> <p>Energy systems research methodology is based on a systems approach considering energy objects as systems with complicated structure and external ties, and includes the methods and technologies of systems analysis.</p> <p>Within this broad multi-disciplinary scope, topics of particular interest include strategic energy systems development at the international, regional, national and local levels; energy supply reliability and security; energy markets, regulations and policy; technological innovations with their impacts and future-oriented transformations of energy systems.</p> <p>The journal welcomes papers on advances in heat and electric power industries, energy efficiency and energy saving, renewable energy and clean fossil fuel generation, and other energy technologies.</p> <p><em>Energy Systems Research</em> is also concerned with energy systems challenges related to the applications of information and communication technologies, including intelligent control and cyber security, modern approaches of systems analysis, modeling, forecasting, numerical computations and optimization.</p> <p>The journal is published by <a title="Melentiev Energy Systems Institute of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Melentiev Energy Systems Institute of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences</a>. The journal's ISSN is 2618-9992. There are 4 issues per year (special issues are available) in English. All articles are available online as Open access articles.</p> <p><a href="">Download a brief information about the journal (in pdf-format)</a></p> Melentiev Energy Systems Institute SB RAS en-US Energy Systems Research 2618-9992 An Approach to Determining Techno-Economic Characteristics of Aggregated Gas Systems <p>The unified gas system of the Russian Federation is a complex, multi-line system that encompasses a huge number of components and connections. It is virtually impossible to create an exact model that adequately describes all its facilities, hence the need for and relevance of the development of methods for aggregating gas systems. The aggregation of such systems can be conventionally divided into two strands: the aggregation of calculated schemes and the aggregation of technical and economic characteristics of their facilities. This study aims to develop methods for determining the aggregated technical and economic characteristics of the gas system facilities. Methodological approaches were analyzed to aggregate technical and economic characteristics of gas systems and their facilities, both in Russia and abroad. The method of aggregating the calculated gas scheme is given briefly. The study relies on the methods of graph theory, the method of distributing gas costs and losses among source nodes and arcs of aggregated graph; and the method of determining optimal technical and economic indicators for new main gas pipelines and fields (a combinatorial optimization method based on the maximum net present value, given the payback period of new facilities). Based on the proposed methodology for aggregating technical and economic characteristics of gas system facilities, an information base was created for multi-level modeling of the development of Russia’s gas systems and calculations were made for the Unified gas system expansion until 2030.</p> T.V. Dzyubina Zh.V. Kalinina N.I. Ilkevich Copyright (c) 2023 Energy Systems Research 2023-10-25 2023-10-25 6 3 5 16 A Methodology for Performance and Reliability Analysis of Prosumers’ Local Heat Sources in District Heating System <p>The paper focuses on two problems addressed in the studies on the prosumer in district heating systems. The first problem is associated with load distribution in the district heating systems with prosumers. The research proposes a bi-level model for solving this problem to determine an optimal balance between the load of district heat sources and prosumer-owned heat sources. The second problem concerns the reliability of heating for consumers to be provided through the optimal distribution of reliability parameters among components of the system, given the capabilities of the prosumer to supply part of load by their heat sources. The methods and models are proposed to solve this problem. They are based on the theory of random processes, theory of hydraulic circuits, and basic laws of cogeneration. The case study results obtained using the developed methodology demonstrate a potential economic benefit and reliability effect of involving the prosumer in heat supply. The conclusions and directions for further research are formulated.</p> V.A. Stennikov I.V. Postnikov A.V. Penkovskii Copyright (c) 2023 Energy Systems Research 2023-10-25 2023-10-25 6 3 17 27 The Use of Energy Storage to Improve Controllability and Security of the Belarusian Power System <p>The planned commissioning of the second unit of the Astravets nuclear power plant in the Republic of Belarus in 2023 will exacerbate the need to ensure controllability and security of both the entire Belarusian power system and its individual power generation centers. To address this issue effectively, it is crucial to flatten the load curves of electricity consumers, and energy storage systems (ESS) make this achievable. The Belarusian power system can use several types of ESSs, both system-wide and local. Li-ion-based ESSs have the best performance when used to smooth the load curves of individual substations. This paper assesses the efficiency of lithium-ion energy storage units. The assessment focuses on various factors such as leveling of the daily load curve of the consumer, decrease in power loss, and voltage regulation at the ESS installation site.</p> M.A. Kashin N.L. Novikov A.N. Novikov Copyright (c) 2023 Energy Systems Research 2023-10-25 2023-10-25 6 3 28 35 A Brief Analysis of Topics of the IEEE Conference on Energy Internet and Energy System Integration in 2017–2021 <p>This paper analyzes the bibliometric data of proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Energy Internet and Energy System Integration posted on IEEE Xplore in 2017–2021. The main objective of the study is to identify the current research issues related to the Energy Internet. To this end, Author Keywords, INSPEC Controlled Terms, and terms compiled from n-grams that were derived from titles and abstracts of conference papers are used to describe topical issues. The terms are clustered using VOSviewer, and the clustered terms serve as a description of current issues. Several research contributions relevant to the subject of this study are summarized to put the latter into a more task-specific context. The conclusion outlines topical issues that merit further, more in-depth, analysis.</p> B.N. Chigarev Copyright (c) 2023 Energy Systems Research 2023-10-25 2023-10-25 6 3 36 49 Comparative Analysis of Optimal PMU Placement Methods for State Estimation and Stability Margin Monitoring of Azerbaijan's Power System <p>To solve the problem of optimal placement of phasor measurement units (PMUs), we compare a method of integer linear programming and a method based on estimating the rate of change in operating parameters under heavy load conditions and disturbances. The former method solves the problem of optimal PMU placement in Azerbaijan's power system with respect to the criterion of full observability. The latter one investigates the rate of change in relative angles of synchronous generators under major disturbances and the rate of change in voltage and its phase in essential cutsets under increased load. The highest rates of change in operating parameters reveal weak nodes where PMUs should be installed.</p> N.A. Yusifbayli V.Kh. Nasibov K.A. Suleymanov Copyright (c) 2023 Energy Systems Research 2023-10-25 2023-10-25 6 3 50 56 Feasibility Study and Design of Smart Low-Energy Building Electrical ‎Installations (Case Study: Isfahan University, Virtual Faculty Building) <p>Buildings, particularly office buildings, are major energy consumers and sources of CO<sub>2</sub> ‎emissions, contributing to around one-third of global energy consumption. As a result, energy ‎consumption optimization regulations and the deployment of renewable energy technology in the ‎construction sector has the potential to significantly reduce energy consumption and carbon ‎emissions. This paper describes a comprehensive study on the technical feasibility and design of ‎the electrical equipment of the Isfahan University virtual faculty building project in accordance ‎with Iran's standards and guidelines of low-energy buildings (mostly chapter 19 of the Iranian ‎National Building Regulations). In this case study, relevant designs and calculations were presented in order to accomplish the ‎low-energy construction goals for various portions of the project. The photovoltaic system on the ‎roof provides a part of the building's energy, and the KNX protocol was used to operate the ‎lighting management system, the cooling and heating systems, and to enable intelligent ‎energy management. As a result, the consumption of the lighting system using high-efficiency ‎LED panels is less than 11 W/m<sup>2</sup>. In order to ensure safety requirements, the main bonding system ‎and ground electrode were designed in accordance with the site characteristics and standard ‎criteria. Low-loss transformers are utilized to power the facility, and a soft starter, a multi-speed ‎control, and a start-up system are used in the utility room. To achieve a minimum power factor ‎of 0.94, a capacitor bank equipped with detuned reactors is employed for reactive power ‎compensation. This paper focuses on the details of this design and the resulting ‎experiences‎.</p> M. Parhamfar S. Shojaeian Z. Bandegani Copyright (c) 2023 Energy Systems Research 2023-10-25 2023-10-25 6 3 57 74 Methods for Analyzing and Increasing Cyber Resilience of Smart Energy System Facilities <p class="Text" style="text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 120%;">Energy systems are currently undergoing digital transformation. The establishment and development of an intelligent energy system involves new information technologies for monitoring, controlling, measuring, and transmitting data to control and manage power flows. However, in addition to all the advantages to be gained using modern information technology, it becomes possible to carry out cyber-attacks on energy facilities. The purpose of this work is to review methods designed to analyze and enhance the cyber resilience of Smart energy system (SES) facilities. Various methods have been used to date, which, to one degree or another, can be used to achieve the above goal. The paper discusses in detail the methods, which can be utilized to:<br />• evaluate the risk of cyberattack;<br />• assess the consequences of cyberattacks;<br />• counteract cyberattacks;<br />• assess cyber situational awareness, and the ways to increase the cyber resilience of SES facilities.<br />The paper also presents the problems facing information security and their causes, and proposes solutions to improve cyber security of electric power facilities.</p> I.S. Demidov Copyright (c) 2023 Energy Systems Research 2023-10-25 2023-10-25 6 3 75 81