Infrastructural Cyber-Physical Energy Systems: Transformations, Challenges, Future Appearance
The directions for the transformation of the key hierarchically-structured infrastructure energy systems, i.e., electric power, heating, and gas supply systems, as influenced by intensively expanding adoption of technology innovations in physical (power) and information-and-communication subsystems are studied. The peculiarities of the transformation of the energy systems structure at their different hierarchical levels are analyzed. Changes in the properties of future energy systems as influenced by innovation-driven processes and facilities are discussed. Interpretations of new properties of transforming energy systems, i.e. flexibility and resiliency, which have recently been the subject of much research effort are analyzed. It is argued that in the future the above energy systems will acquire the features of integrated cyber-physical systems. The fundamental role of developing control systems for future infrastructure cyber-physical energy systems is emphasized.
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